Construct and run Android Automotive OS on Raspberry Pi 4B – Grape Up


Have you ever ever wished to construct your personal Android? It’s straightforward in keeping with the official guide, but it surely’s getting more durable on a Home windows (or Mac) machine, or when you’d wish to run it on bodily {hardware}. Nonetheless too straightforward? Let’s construct Android Automotive OS – the identical supply code, however one other layer of complexity. On this guide, we’ll cowl all steps wanted to construct and run Android Automotive OS 11 AOSP on Raspberry Pi 4B utilizing Home windows. The answer isn’t good, nonetheless. Probably the most principal situation is a scarcity of Google Companies as a result of the whole AAOS is on an open-source mission and Google doesn’t present its companies this manner. However, let’s construct the open-source model first, after which we will attempt to face incoming points.



If you wish to run the system on a bodily system, you want one. I take advantage of the Raspberry Pi 4 mannequin B with 8GB of RAM ( By the way in which, if you wish to construct and run an emulator from the supply, it’s additionally attainable, however there’s a small limitation – packaging the emulator to a zipper file, shifting it to a different pc, and even working it beneath Android Studio was launched in Android 12.

To energy your Raspberry, you want an influence adapter (USB C, min. 5V 3A). I take advantage of the Raspberry-official 5.1V 3A mannequin. You may also energy the Raspberry pc out of your desktop/laptop computer’s USB port, particularly when you’re going to debug it by way of a serial connection. Test the “If it doesn’t work” part under for the required {hardware}.

One other piece of {hardware} wanted is an SD card. In idea, 4GB is all you want, nonetheless, I like to recommend shopping for a bigger card to have some further house in your functions on Android. I take advantage of 32GB and 64GB playing cards. You’ll additionally want a built-in or exterior card reader. I take advantage of the latter. 

The following step is a display screen. It’s elective however fancy. You may join your mouse and optionally keyboard to your Raspberry Pi by way of USB and join any show you will have by way of micro-HDMI however utilizing a contact display screen is way more intuitive. I take advantage of a Waveshare 10-inch display screen devoted to Raspberry ( The display screen field has a spot to screw the Raspberry too, so that you don’t want any further case. You may also purchase it with an influence adapter and a show cable.

In case you don’t purchase a bundle, be sure you have all essential equipment: micro-HDMI – HDMI cable to attach a display screen (Waveshare or every other), USB A – USB mini A cable to attach a contact sensor of the display screen, USB mini A 5V 3A adapter to energy the display screen.

In fact, you want a pc. On this guide, we use a Home windows machine with no less than 512GB of storage (the Android supply is big) and 16GB of RAM.

Software program

You may most likely construct all the pieces in pure Home windows, however the really useful methodology is to make use of WSL. I assume you have already got it put in, so simply be sure you have the latest WSL2 model. When you’ve got by no means used WSL earlier than, see the complete guide right here

WSL changes

The usual WSL set up makes use of a too-small digital drive and restricted RAM, so you have to alter it. 

Let’s begin with the disk. Be sure that the WSL is shut down by working ‘wsl –shutdown’ within the command immediate. Open Home windows Command Immediate with admin privileges and enter ‘diskpart’. Then run ‘choose vdisk file=”<path to WSL drive file>”’. For me, the trail is “C:Customers<person>AppDataLocalPackagesCanonicalGroupLimited.Ubuntu_<WSL_instance_id>LocalStateext4.vhdx”. Now you may broaden it with the command ‘broaden vdisk most=512000’. Round 300GB is sufficient for Android 11, however if you wish to play with a number of branches of Android on the similar time, you want more room. Now you may shut the diskpart with the ‘exit’ command. Subsequent, open the WSL and run ‘sudo resize2fs /dev/sdb 512000M’. I assume you will have solely a single drive hooked up to the WSL and it’s seen within the Linux subsystem as /dev/sdb. You may examine it with the instructions ‘sudo mount -t devtmpfs none /dev || mount | grep ext4’. 

Now, let’s alter the reminiscence. Cease the WSL once more. Open your property listing in Home windows and open .wslconfig file. Create it if this file doesn’t exist but. Within the file, you have to create a [wsl2] part and reminiscence configuration. The whole file ought to appear like this: 

As you may see, I’ve hooked up 16GB to the digital machine. It’s assigned dynamically, in keeping with wants, however you should be conscious that the digital machine can take all of it, so when you enable it to eat your whole RAM, it could actually pressure your Home windows to make use of a tough disk to outlive (which can sluggish all the pieces down considerably).


Constructing Android on 8 cores, 16GB RAM machine takes round 4 hours. If you wish to do it sooner otherwise you don’t have a pc highly effective sufficient at your property or workplace, you may think about constructing within the cloud. Easy AWS EC2 with 32 cores and 64GB of reminiscence does the job in a single hour (to obtain and construct) and prices just some bucks.

Let’s Get Able to Rumble!!!

..or no less than to constructing.

Extra stipulations

We’d like some software program however not a lot. Simply set up the next packages. This set of libraries lets you construct Android Automotive OS variations 11 to 13.

sudo apt replace && sudo apt set up gcc-aarch64-linux-gnu libssl-dev bc python3-setuptools repo python-is-python3 libncurses5 zip unzip make gcc flex bison -y

Supply code downloading

Let’s create a house listing for our android and obtain sources.

mkdir android-11.0.0_r48 && cd android-11.0.0_r48
repo init -u -b android-11.0.0_r48 --partial-clone --clone-filter=blob:restrict=10M
git clone .repo/local_manifests -b arpi-11
repo sync

“repo init” will ask you for some private knowledge. It’s collected by Google. To study extra about optimizations right here, examine this guide: ‘git clone’ provides a customized code from Android RPI mission ( with drivers in your Raspberry Pi. The mission is nice and it’s all you want if you wish to run Android TV. To run Android Automotive OS, we’ll want to regulate it barely (see “Changes” part under). ‘repo sync’ will take a while as a result of you have to obtain round 200GB of code. When you’ve got a strong machine with a terrific Web connection, you should utilize extra threads with ‘-j X’ parameter added to the command. The default thread depend is 4. When you’ve got already synchronized your supply code with out android-rpi native manifest, you have to add –force-sync to the ’repo-sync’ command.


All adjustments from this part can obtain as a patch file hooked up to this text. See the “Path file” part under.

Android-rpi supplies Android TV for Raspberry Pi. We have to take away the TV-related configuration and add the Automotive OS one.

Let’s begin with eradicating pointless recordsdata. You may safely take away the next recordsdata and directories:

  • system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/anim
  • system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values-television
  • system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/dimens.xml
  • system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/types.xml
  • system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/packages

To take away the person discover display screen not wanted in Automotive OS, create a brand new file system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/packages/companies/Automobile/service/res/values/config.xml with the next content material:

<?xml model="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<assets xmlns:xliff="urn:oasis:names:tc:xliff:doc:1.2"> 
  <string title="config_userNoticeUiService" translatable="false"></string>

To exchange the fundamental TV overlay config with the Automotive overlay config, alter the configuration in system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/config.xml.

Take away:

  • <integer title=”config_defaultUiModeType”>4</integer> <!–disable pressured UI_MODE_TYPE_TELEVISION, as there may be solely MODE_TYPE_CAR accessible now–>
  • <integer title=”config_longPressOnHomeBehavior”>0</integer> <!–disable house button lengthy press motion–>
  • <bool title=”config_hasPermanentDpad”>true</bool> <!–disable D-pad–>
  • <string title=”config_appsAuthorizedForSharedAccounts”>;;</string> <!–take away pointless entry for a shared account as there may be nothing in* now–>

… and add:

  • <bool title=”config_showNavigationBar”>true</bool> <!–allow software program navigation bar, as there isn’t any hardwave one–>
  • <bool title=”config_enableMultiUserUI”>true</bool> <!–allow multi-user, as AAOS makes use of background processes known as in one other periods –>
  • <integer title=”config_multiuserMaximumUsers”>8</integer> <!–set most person depend, required by the earlier one–>

Additionally in system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/packages/SystemUI/res/values/config.xml, take away <string title=”config_statusBarComponent” translatable=”false”></string>.

Now let’s rename the android-rpi unique /system/arpi/rpi4/ to /system/arpi/rpi4/ We have to alter the file a little bit bit.

Take away the next variables definitions. A few of them you’ll re-create in one other file, whereas a few of them are usually not wanted.


Take away the next invocations. We’re going to name essential exterior recordsdata in one other mk file.

  • $(name inherit-product, system/google/atv/merchandise/
  • $(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
  • $(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
  • embrace frameworks/native/construct/

In PRODUCT_PROPERTY_OVERRIDES take away debug.drm.mode.pressure=1280×720 and add the next properties. This manner you take away the TV launcher configuration and override the default automotive launcher configuration.

  • dalvik.vm.dex2oat64.enabled=true
  • keyguard.no_require_sim=true
  • ro.logd.measurement=1m

Now you have to fully take away the android-rpi TV launcher and add RenderScript assist for Automotive OS. In PRODUCT_PACKAGES take away:

… and add:

Create a brand new rpi4.mk4 with the next content material:

PRODUCT_PACKAGE_OVERLAYS += system/generic/automotive/frequent/overlay
$(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
$(name inherit-product, system/arpi/rpi4/
$(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
$(name inherit-product, system/generic/automotive/frequent/
DEVICE_PACKAGE_OVERLAYS += system/arpi/rpi4/overlay system/generic/automotive/car_x86_64/overlay

PRODUCT_MODEL := Raspberry Pi 4

As a result of license, bear in mind so as to add your self to the PRODUCT_MANUFACTURER subject.

Now you will have two mk recordsdata – is borrowed from android-rpi mission and adjusted, and accommodates all adjustments for Automotive OS. You may meld these two collectively or cut up them into extra recordsdata when you’d like, however remember the fact that the order of invocations does matter (not all the time, however nonetheless). 

As Android Automotive OS is larger than Android TV, we have to enhance the system partition measurement to suit the brand new picture. In system/arpi/rpi4/ enhance BOARD_SYSTEMIMAGE_PARTITION_SIZE to 2147483648, which suggests 2GB.

It is advisable to apply all adjustments described in too. These adjustments are additionally included within the patch file hooked up.

In case you use the 8GB model of Raspberry Pi, you have to substitute system/arpi/rpi4/boot/fixup4.dat and system/arpi/rpi4/boot/start4.elf recordsdata. You’ll find the right recordsdata within the patch file hooked up or it’s possible you’ll use the official supply: It’s most likely not wanted for 4GB model of Raspberry, however I don’t have such a tool for verification. 

Path file 

In case you choose to use all adjustments described above as a single file, go to your sources listing and run ‘git apply –no-index <path_to_patch_file>’. There’s additionally a boot animation changed within the patch file. If you wish to create one in all your personal, comply with the official guide right here:

Now we will construct!

That’s the straightforward half. Simply run just a few instructions from under. Firstly, we have to construct a customized kernel for Android. ‘’ script simply configures all variables required. The primary ‘make’ command builds the true kernel picture (which might take a couple of minutes). Subsequent, construct a tool tree configuration. 

cd kernel/arpi
ARCH=arm64 scripts/kconfig/ arch/arm64/configs/bcm2711_defconfig kernel/configs/android-base.config kernel/configs/android-recommended.config
ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- make Picture.gz
ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- DTC_FLAGS="[email protected]" make broadcom/bcm2711-rpi-4-b.dtb
ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- DTC_FLAGS="[email protected]" make overlays/vc4-kms-v3d-pi4.dtbo
cd ../..

The following half is to construct the whole system. “” script units up variables and provides customized instructions to your terminal. Then you may choose the right pair of Android variations and units with “lunch”. You may run it with out parameters to see (nearly) all attainable configurations. On this step, you may determine to construct a system for devoted {hardware} (eg. Dragonboard) and swap between telephone/pill/TV/wearable/automotive variations of Android. The final line is an actual constructing. We are able to’t run simply “make” or “m”, as documented within the official guide as a result of we have to create three particular photographs to put in writing them on an SD card and run them on Raspberry Pi. Substitute “X” in ‘-j X’ with the variety of threads you wish to use. The default worth is the variety of logical processors in your pc. 

supply construct/
lunch rpi4-eng
make -j X ramdisk systemimage vendorimage

I hope you will have a pleasant e-book subsequent to you as a result of the final constructing takes just a few hours relying in your {hardware}. Excellent news!  If you have to adapt one thing and construct once more, generally you simply want the three final traces (and even simply the final one) – to supply the setting setup, to choose the lunch configuration, and to make ramdisk, system, and vendor photographs. And it takes hours for the primary time solely. 

Creating an SD card 

This step appears to be straightforward, but it surely isn’t. WSL doesn’t include drivers for the USB card reader. You should use usbip to ahead a tool from Home windows to the subsystem, but it surely doesn’t work properly with exterior storage with out partitions. The answer is a VirtualBox with Ubuntu put in. Simply create a digital machine, set up Ubuntu, and set up Visitor Additions. Then you may join the cardboard reader and cross it to the digital machine. In case you’re a minimalist, you should utilize Ubuntu Server or every other Linux distribution you want. Remember that utilizing a card reader constructed into your pc could also be difficult relying on drivers and the {hardware} connection kind (USB-like, or PCI-e). 

Now, you have to create a partition schema on the SD card. I assume the cardboard is loaded to the system as /dev/sdb. Test your configuration earlier than persevering with to keep away from formatting your major drive or one other catastrophe. Let’s erase the present partition desk and create a brand new one. 

sudo umount /dev/sdb*
sudo wipefs -a /dev/sdb
sudo fdisk /dev/sdb

Now let’s create partitions. First, you want a 128MB lively partition of the W95 FAT32 (LBA) kind, second a 2GB Linux partition, third a 128MB Linux partition, and the remainder of the cardboard for person knowledge (additionally Linux partition). Right here’s how you can navigate by way of fdisk menu to configure all partitions.

Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.37.2).
Adjustments will stay in reminiscence solely, till you determine to put in writing them.
Watch out earlier than utilizing the write command.
Machine doesn't include a acknowledged partition desk.
Created a brand new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x179fb9bc.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition kind
   p   main (0 main, 0 prolonged, 4 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default p): 
Utilizing default response p.
Partition quantity (1-4, default 1): 
First sector (2048-61022207, default 2048): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-sizeK,M,G,T,P (2048-61022207, default 61022207): +128M
Created a brand new partition 1 of kind 'Linux' and of measurement 128 MiB.
Command (m for assist): a
Chosen partition 1
The bootable flag on partition 1 is enabled now.
Command (m for assist): t
Chosen partition 1
Hex code or alias (kind L to listing all): 0c
Modified kind of partition 'Linux' to 'W95 FAT32 (LBA)'.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition kind
   p   main (1 main, 0 prolonged, 3 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default p): 
Utilizing default response p.
Partition quantity (2-4, default 2): 
First sector (264192-61022207, default 264192): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-sizeK,M,G,T,P (264192-61022207, default 61022207): +2G
Created a brand new partition 2 of kind 'Linux' and of measurement 2 GiB.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition kind
   p   main (2 main, 0 prolonged, 2 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default p): 
Utilizing default response p.
Partition quantity (3,4, default 3): 
First sector (4458496-61022207, default 4458496): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-sizeK,M,G,T,P (4458496-61022207, default 61022207): +128M
Created a brand new partition 3 of kind 'Linux' and of measurement 128 MiB.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition kind
   p   main (3 main, 0 prolonged, 1 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default e): p
Chosen partition 4
First sector (4720640-61022207, default 4720640): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-sizeK,M,G,T,P (4720640-61022207, default 61022207):
Created a brand new partition 4 of kind 'Linux' and of measurement 26,8 GiB.
Command (m for assist): w
The partition desk has been altered.
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition desk.
Syncing disks.

Watch out with the final partition – fdisk proposes creating an prolonged one by default, which isn’t wanted in our use case.

In case you don’t do it for the primary time on the identical card, you might even see a warning that some partition already accommodates a file system signature. You may safely comply with take away it. 

Partition #4 accommodates a ext4 signature.
Do you wish to take away the signature? [Y]es/[N]o: Y
The signature will probably be eliminated by a write command.

Now, let’s provide file programs for the primary and the final partitions. 

sudo mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sdb1
sudo mkfs.ext4 -L userdata /dev/sdb4

We received’t write something to the final one, because it’s for person knowledge solely and will probably be crammed by Android through the first boot. However we have to write some recordsdata for the primary one. Let’s create a short lived mount listing beneath /mnt/p1 (like “partition 1”), mount it, and duplicate the required recordsdata from the Android constructed within the earlier part. It’s unusual, however we’re going to repeat recordsdata from one digital machine (WSL) to a different (VirtualBox). You may merely mount a wsl drive as a shared folder in VirtualBox. In case you don’t see a WSL drive in your Home windows Explorer, you may map it as a community drive utilizing “wsl$Ubuntu” path

sudo mkdir /mnt/p1
sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/p1
sudo mkdir /mnt/p1/overlays
sudo cp system/arpi/rpi4/boot/* /mnt/p1
sudo cp kernel/arpi/arch/arm64/boot/Picture.gz /mnt/p1
sudo cp kernel/arpi/arch/arm64/boot/dts/broadcom/bcm2711-rpi-4-b.dtb /mnt/p1
sudo cp kernel/arpi/arch/arm/boot/dts/overlays/vc4-kms-v3d-pi4.dtbo /mnt/p1/overlays/
sudo cp out/goal/product/rpi4/ramdisk.img /mnt/p1
sudo umount /mnt/p1
sudo rm -rf /mnt/p1

In case you’re trying on the official android-rpi mission guide, there’s a totally different path for vc4-kms-v3d-pi4.dtbo file. That’s OK – they use a symbolic hyperlink we’re unable to make use of on this filesystem. 

Typically, you may see an error message when creating an “overlays” listing. It occurs every so often, as a result of “mount” returns to the console earlier than actually mounting the drive. In such a case, simply name “mkdir” once more. Concentrate on that, particularly when you’re going to copy-paste the whole itemizing from above. 

Now, let’s copy the 2 remaining partitions. In case you’re combating dd command (it might grasp), you may attempt to copy massive *.img recordsdata from WSL to VirtualBox first.

cd <PATH_TO_YOUR_ANDROID_SOURCES_IN_WSL>/out/goal/product/rpi4/
sudo dd if=system.img of=/dev/sdb2 bs=1M standing=progress
sudo dd if=vendor.img of=/dev/sdb3 bs=1M standing=progress


You’re finished. You’ve downloaded, ready, constructed, and saved your personal Android Automotive OS. Now you may put the SD card into Raspberry, and join all cables (be sure you join the Raspberry energy cable on the finish). There isn’t any “energy” button, and it doesn’t matter which micro-HDMI or USB port of Raspberry you employ. It’s now time to take pleasure in your personal Android Automotive OS! 

If it doesn’t work

The world isn’t good and generally one thing goes terribly unsuitable. In case you see the boot animation for a very long time, or in case your system crashes in a loop just a few seconds after boot, you may attempt to debug it.

You want a USB-TTL bridge (like this one to attach the right pins from the Raspberry to the USB. It is advisable to join pin 6 (floor) to the GND pin within the bridge, pin 8 (RXD) to the RXD pin of the bridge and pin 10 (TXD) to the TXD pin of the bridge. If you wish to energy the Raspberry by way of the bridge, you have to additionally join pin 2 to +5V pin of the bridge. It isn’t really useful, due to the decrease voltage, so your system could be unstable. In case you don’t have an influence adapter, you may merely join a USB cable between your pc port and the USB C port of the Raspberry. Warning! You may’t join each a +5V connector right here and a USB C energy port of the Raspberry otherwise you’ll burn the Raspberry board. 

See the schema for the connection reference.

The picture is predicated on 20171226043249PINOUT-USBTTL-CP2102.pdf ( and File:RaspberryPi 4 Model B.svg – Wikimedia Commons

Relying in your bridge mannequin, it’s possible you’ll want an extra driver. I take advantage of this one:

Whenever you join the +5V pin or USB-C energy adapter (once more, by no means each on the similar time!), the Raspberry begins. Now you may open Putty and hook up with your Android. Decide Serial and kind COMX within the serial line definition. X is the variety of your COM port. You may examine it in your system supervisor – search for “USB to UART bridge (COM4)” or the like. The proper connection velocity is 115200.

Open the connection to entry the Android shell. By default, Android spawns all logs to the usual output, so you must see loads of them immediately. Anyway, it’s dual-side communication and you’ve got full terminal entry to your Android if you have to examine/modify any file or name any command. Simply strike enter to see the command immediate. You may even name ‘su’ to achieve superuser entry in your Android working on Raspberry. 

Connecting by way of adb 

If you wish to use Android Debug Bridge to hook up with your system, utilizing a USB bridge isn’t sufficient. When working ‘adb units’ in your pc, the Android Automotive OS working on Raspberry isn’t acknowledged. You should use a putty connection to activate a TCP debug bridge as a substitute. 

Be sure you’ve related Android and your pc to the identical community. Open putty and hook up with the working Android console. Log as root and allow ADB by way of TCP. Then examine your IP handle. 

setprop service.adb.tcp.port 5555
cease adbd
begin adbd
ifconfig wlan0

Now, utilizing your Home windows command line, go to the Android SDK platform-tools listing and hook up with your system. As you may see, the IP handle of mine Raspnberry is

cd %userprofilepercentAppDataLocalAndroidSdkplatform-tools
adb join

If you wish to use ADB in WSL, you may hyperlink the Home windows program in WSL utilizing the next command.

sudo ln -s /mnt/c/Customers/<your_username>/AppData/Native/Android/Sdk/platform-tools/adb.exe /usr/bin/adb

Now you can use ADB to make use of logcat with out putty or to put in functions with out manually transferring APK recordsdata to the SD card. Enjoyable truth – when you use a USB bridge and USB energy provide, you will have two bodily connections between your pc and the Android-running one, nonetheless, you continue to want to make use of ADB over WiFi to make use of the debug bridge.


That’s all. Android Automotive OS 11 is working. You may set up the apps you want, take them to your automotive, or do no matter you’d like with them.  Utilizing {hardware} as a substitute of an emulator lets you manually handle partitions (e.g. for the OTA replace) and join exterior units like an actual GPS receiver or accelerometer. The naked steel {hardware} overperforms the emulator too. And most significantly – you may simply take it to your automotive, obtain energy from an in-car USB port, join it to an ODB-II port and run real-life assessments with no laptop computer.